But Roman Catholics in the populous Rhenish areas were mostly constitutionalists, in sympathy with some tenets of liberalism.Their political program, which led to the formation of the Centre Party, included the defense of the right of all religious minorities.The Constitution of 1812 abolished the Inquisition and restricted the number of religious orders but recognized Catholicism as the established church.
With the recent boom in business ethics comes a curious irony: the more entrenched the discipline becomes in business schools, the more bewildering—and even off-putting—it appears to actual managers.
After the unification of Italy, the struggle between clericals and anticlericals continued.
When Rome became the capital, the temporal power of the popes was ended.
Anticlericals reacted bitterly, and from that time until 1939 the struggle between the right and left in Spain was far more a conflict between clericals and anticlericals than elsewhere in Latin Europe. Barcelona, traditionally a centre of anti-Catholic feeling, witnessed the formation of powerful syndicalist and anarchist groups.
The first Spanish Republic (1873) enacted some anticlerical laws, but these were repealed or disregarded when the monarchy was restored in 1875.